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Суббота, 25.11.2017, 10:47
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Главная » Статьи » История - Дакийцы » Жизнь и Быт

Словарь фракийского языка
Фракийский язык был ближайшим родственником дакийского.

Все,очень просто:слева слово на дакийском языке(произношение голосом как и на английском),справа перевод на английский.
Обозначения:
H = гидроним;
RN = имя реки;
VN = имя поселения;
PN = географическое название

Примечание: Данный словарь частично реконструирован И.Дуридановым на основе топонимов и гидронимов Балканского полуострова.
Словарь:

achel- ‘water (noun), water (adj.)’ [лит. H Akele., Phryg. akala ‘water’].
aiz- ‘a goat’ [Armen. aic, греч. aix].
ala ‘current, stream’ [лтш. H Alaja, лит. ale.ti ‘flooded’].
alonhon 'a spear'
alta(s) ‘current, stream’ [Illyrian RN Altus, рус. (from Balt.) RN Al'ta].
an(a) ‘at, on’ [авест. ana ‘along’, греч. aná ‘at, along’, гот. ana ‘at, towards’].
ang- ‘curved, twisting’ [скр. ancati ‘a curve’, греч. ankos ‘valley, abyss’].
ant(i) ‘against’ [скр. ánti ‘against, nearby, the лит. ant ‘towards, against’, тох. ánt ‘through’, греч. antí ‘against’, etc.].
apa, aphus ‘water, river; a spring’ [прус. ape ‘river’, apus ‘spring’, скр. ap- ‘water’].
apsa ‘aspen’ [Altin apse ‘aspen’, прус. abse, Pol. osa (from Proto-слав. *apsá), двн. aspa ‘aspen’].
argilos - 'a mouse' (греч. argos 'white')
arma ‘swamp, bog’ [лит. arma ‘bog, puddle’, armuo, -ens ‘the same’].
ars- ‘to flow; current, river’ [прус. RN Arsio, Arse, скр. árs,ati ‘to flow’, хетт. arљ- ‘the same’].
arta(s), arda(s) ‘current. river’ [скр. árdati ‘to flow’, греч. ardó ‘to bedew’].
arzas ‘white’ [ИЕ. *arg'- (white, clear)].
asa(s) ‘stone’, as(a)m ‘stony’ [скр. as’man ‘stone; heaven’, авест. asman- ‘the same’, пеласг. asáminthos (stone) bath’, лит. akmuo, -ens ‘stone’].
asa ‘colt’s foot (Tussilago farfara)’. That was its Bessian name according to Dioskurides. It is related to the лит. dial. asys ‘horse-tail, Equisetum’, лтш. aљi, aљas ‘horse-tail, sedge, rush’, which are probably related to the лтш. aљs, ass ‘sharp’, Old-болг. ostrý, лит. aљtrus ‘sharp’.
asn - 'I, me' , [ИЕ. *eg'hom, лит. aљ 'I, me'].
at ‘at, towards’ [ИЕ. *ad-, Latin ad 'to, towards', лтш. ad ‘at, towards’, Old-Icel. at ‘at, opposite to’].
ath- ‘high, steep coast, a hill’ [греч. akté ‘steep coast, peninsula, cape’].
at(u) ‘current, stream’ [лтш. RN Adula, German Attel, авест. adu- ‘current, stream, channel’].
balios 'white', [ИЕ. *bhel-].
bebrus ‘beaver’ [лит. bebrus ‘beaver’, прус. bébrus, болг. VN Bebrovo, двн. bibar, etc.].
bend- ‘to bind’, marriage [скр. bándhana- ‘binding’, авест. bandayaiti ‘to bind’, Goth, Anglo-Saxon bindan, German binden ‘to bind’].
beras ‘brown, swarthy’ [лит. be.ras ‘brown’, лтш. bers ‘the same’, двн. bero ‘a bear’ (initially ‘brown’)].
berga(s) ‘hill, bank’ [Old-Icel. berg ‘mountain’, двн. berg, German Berg ‘mountain’, Old-болг. breg@, New-болг. brjag ‘bank, coast’].
berza(s) ‘birch’ [ИЕ. *bherg'- 'a birch', лит. bérz'as, лтш. berzs, прус. berse, рус. ber'oza, болг. breza ‘birch’].
bolinthos ‘wild bull, bison’. The word is attested in Aristotle, according to whom that animal lived in the Messapian mountain, which separated the
bonassos 'a bull' [ИЕ. *gwou-, Latin bos, bovis 'a bull'].
bor- 'mountain' [in Huper-boreoi 'those living behind the mountain'; ИЕ. *Hegwr- 'hill, mountain'].
bredas ‘pasture-ground’ [рус. bred, bredina ‘pasture’, bresti, bredu ‘to cross by a ford’, Balt. (Zhemait.) RN Bred-upja].
brentas (brendas) ‘deer’ [Messap. bréndon ‘deer’].
bria ‘town’ (Strab.; Steph. Byz. under the word of Messembria). Both authors state the word was Thracian. It is often found as a second component of Thracian settlement names, for example: Messembria, Poltymbria, Sélymbria, Skedabria, etc. The Thracian ‘bria’ is related to the тох. A ri, B riye ‘town (a refuge on a hill)’ – from the ИЕ. *wrijá.
brilón - 'a barber', [слав. *briti 'to shave', скр. bhrinati 'he hurts', Persian burridan 'to cut'].
brink- ‘to swell’ [лит. brinkti [brinkstu) ‘to swell’, Pol. na-brekac' ‘the same’].
briza ‘spelt, rye’ (Gal. de alim. facult. 1, 13/6 p. 514. Kühn). The author (Galen) saw this plant in Thracia and in Macedonia and concluded the word was Thracian. It is very probable. There are several etymologies for this word, that of A. Fick being the most acceptable one. A. Fick relates the Thracian briza to the скр. vrihi-h, Pers. birinj, Afg. vriz'e ‘rice’, греч. orinda=óryza ‘rice’, from which the болг. oriz. There is an alternative interpretation: the Thracian bryza is related to the лит. brizdis ‘ling’, from the stem of the verb brigzti ‘to be torn, to get unraveled’.
bruzas ‘quick’ [лит. bruz'as ‘somebody who runs to and fro’, the слав. *b@rz@, болг. br@z].
brynchós ‘guitar for the Thracians’ (Hesych.). The word is related to the Pol. brzek ‘a ringing, a tinkle’, Ukr. brjak ‘a ringing, a sound’.
brytos (masc.), bryton (neuter) ‘a kind of ale from barley, a beer’ (Archil. Hecat. and others), brutos (Hesych.), bryttion (Herodian.). The word was used by the Thracians, the Peonians and the Phrygians.
bur, buris (boris) ‘man’ [алб. burrë ‘man’].
burt- (burd-) ‘a ford’ [слав. *brod@, болг. brod ‘a ford’].
búzas ‘a goat’ [авест. búza- ‘a goat’].
chalas ‘mud’ [Old-болг. kal@, New-болг. kal ‘mud’, Czech kal ‘swamp; mud. soft soil’].
[скр. dháman- ‘place for dwelling’, греч. thaimós ‘house’].
daphas ‘a flood’ [лит. dapas ‘a flood’, Norw. dial. dave ‘puddle, pool’].
darsas (dersas) ‘brave, courageous’ [прус. dyrsos (pl.) ‘able, brave’, авест. darљyu- ‘brave, strong’].
datan (datas) ‘place, settlement’ [алб. datë ‘place, settlement].
dava - 'a town'
dentu- ‘clan, tribe’ [лтш. gens ‘clan, tribe’].
dero, dur 'a stockade', [ИЕ. *dhwer- 'a door, a gate'].
desa(s), disa(s) ‘deity, god’ [ИЕ. *deiwo-, греч. théos ‘a god’].
-didzos, -didza 'to create' [рус. so-zdat 'to create', лит. z'iedz'iu 'I form, I mould', гот. deigan 'to puddle', скр. déhmi 'I plaster', Old-Pers. didá 'a fort', греч. teikhos 'a wall', Latin fingo, fictus 'I puddle', Oscan feihúss 'walls'].
dinga ‘fertile ground’ [лтш. dinga ‘fertile place’, Old-Icel. dyngia ‘dunghill’].
diza ‘fortress’ [авест. uz-daéza ‘a heaping, a fortification’, Old-Pers. didá, New-Pers. diz, déz ‘fortress’].
dón ‘place, country(side)’ [Old-Ir. dú, Gen. don ‘place, country(side)’, греч. chthón ‘soil, land’].
douro- 'strong' [Celt. *duro-].
drenis ‘deer’ [алб. dre, dreni ‘deer’].
dul 'a house, a family'.
dumas ‘dark’ [лит. dúmas ‘dark, dark brown (for cattle)’, лтш. dúms ‘dark brown’].
dún- ‘hill, mountain’ [Celtic *dunum 'a hill', Anglo-Saxon dún hill, mountain’, German Düne ‘dune’].
ebros 'a goat' [ИЕ. *kapro-, Gaulish gabro- 'a goat', Old Irish gabor 'a goat', Irish gabhar].
e(i)b- ‘to flow, to drip’ [пеласг. eibó ‘to drip, to flow (out)’].
ermas ‘fierce, mad’ [алб. jerm ‘furious, mad’].
esko 'to eat' [ИЕ. *ed- 'to eat'].
esvas (ezvas), esb ‘a horse’ [ИЕ. *ekwo- 'a horse'].
gagila 'a jackdaw' [слав. *gala 'a jackdaw'].
gaidrus ‘bright, clear’ [лит. gaidrus ‘bright, clear (cloudless)’, греч. phaidrós ‘shining, bright, cheerful’].
gava(s) ‘county, countryside’ [гот. gawi ‘county’, догреч. gaia, Att. gé ‘land, region’].
genton 'a piece of meat'.
germas ‘warm, hot’ [ИЕ. *gherm-, скр. gharmá- ‘heat’, Armen. j^erm’warm’, греч. thermós ‘the same’].
gesa ‘stork kingfisher’ [прус. geeyse ‘kingfisher’, лтш. dzése ‘heron, kingfisher’].
gin- ‘to languish, to spoil, to dry out’ [Old-Kurian Ginulle (a stream), лтш. g'nins ‘to spoil, to languish’].
haimos (-on), *saimas (-an) ‘ridge, mountain chain’ [скр. simán- ‘ridge, boundary’, Irish sím ‘chain’].
heris 'a hand' [ИЕ. *khesro- 'a hand', греч. kheir 'a hand', Hittite keљљar 'a hand'].
ida (ide) ‘tree; forest’ [Old-Ir. fid, Gen. fedo ‘tree, trees, forest’].
iet(e)r (=jeter-) ‘quick, agile’ [двн. átar ‘quick’, лтш. atrs ‘quick’].
iltea 'a chosen woman'.
íl(u)- ‘silt, mud’ [греч. ílys, -ýos ‘mud, silt’, Church слав. il@ ‘the same’].
iúras (=júras) ‘water, river’ [лит. júra ‘a sea’, Old-Nord. úr ‘drizzle’].
kaba(s) ‘bog, swamp’ [Engl. quab].
kalas ‘district, border region’ [лит. galas ‘end, border of a field, meadow or forest’, лтш. gals ‘neighbourhood’].
kalsas ‘dry, dried up’ [лтш. kálst (-stu, -tu) ‘to dry up, to wither’].
kamoles 'beloved'.
kapas ‘hill, slope’ [лтш. kapa, kape ‘long mountain strip, dune, slope’, лит. kopa ‘and hill, dune’].
kel(l)a ‘a spring’ [двн. quella, German Quelle ‘a spring’].
kenthas ‘a child, descendant’ [лтш. re-cens ‘fresh, young, new’, with another suffix in the New-Bulg chedo ‘a child’].
kersas ‘black’ [лит. kérљas ‘on black and white spots’, болг. cheren ‘black’, скр. krsná ‘black, dark’].
ketri-, ketre- ‘four’ [ИЕ. *kwetwores, греч. tetra ‘four’, Cymr. pedry- ‘four-fold’, лит. keturi, лтш. c'etri, болг. c'etiri ‘four’].
kik- ‘live, agile’ [Anglo-Saxon cwicu, Old-Nord. kvikr, kykr ‘live, agile’, Engl. quick].
kiri- [or kira] ‘mountain’, ‘forest’ [скр. girí-h ‘mountain’, авест. gairi- ‘the same’, лит. giria, gire ‘forest, wood’. лтш. dzira ‘forest’].
knisa(s) ‘eroded place’ [лит. knisti ‘to dig’].
kupsela ‘a heap, a hillock’ [лит. kupse.lis ‘heap, hillock’].
kurp- ‘to burrow’ [лит. kurpti (-i?) ‘to burrow’, рус. korpat’ ‘to burrow’].
kurta ‘groove, wood’ [прус. korto ‘groove’ from the Baltic *kurtá].
laza (-as) ‘clearing (in forest), glade’ [Serbo-Croat läz ‘clearing’, рус. laz ‘animal pathway to a river (lake)’, lazina 'clearing’].
lingas ‘depression, meadow’ [лит. lénge ‘low land’, PN Linge, болг. long@ ‘meadow’].
mandakes ‘a binder for sheaves’
marieus 'lime' [ИЕ. *mar- 'dirty, unclear'].
mar- ‘water, river, bog’ ["European" *mar- 'sea', Gaulish mor- 'sea', Anglo-Saxon merisc ‘swamp’, Old-Icel. moerr ‘swampy country’].
marka ‘bog; swampy country’ [лит. mark? ‘a pit for steeping flax or hemp’, Ukrain. morokva ‘bog’].
melda(s) ‘marshy reed’ [лит. melda, méldas ‘marsh reed’, лтш. meldi ‘reed’, двн. melta].
mér- ‘large, great’ [ИЕ. *mér-, Church слав. personal name Vladi-mer@, двн. Volk-már, Hlodo-már, Old-Icel. már ‘big’].
mezéna ‘a horseman’ [алб. mes, mezi ‘stallion’, Roman. (substrat) mînz ‘stallion’].
midne 'a settlement'.
muka ‘seed, clan, posterity’ [Iran. muka- in the Osset. mug? ‘family’, muggag ‘seed, clan’].
mukas ‘swampy country, a bog’ [лтш. muka ‘swamp, where one can sink’, mukls ‘swampy’, лит. RN Múke.].
musas ‘moss, mould’ [двн., Anglo-Saxon mos ‘moss, swamp’, German Moss ‘moss’, Church-Slav. m@h@ ‘moss’, лит. musai, pl. ‘mould on yoghourt’].
neos 'new' [ИЕ. *newo- 'new'].
nest- ‘rumbling, roaring’ [скр. nádati ‘to rumlble, to roar’, nadi- ‘river, current’].
niva 'snow' [ИЕ. *sneigwh- 'snow'].
óstas ‘river mouth’ [лит. úostas, uosta ‘river mouth; a port’, лтш. uosts-, uosta ‘the same’, Latin óstium ‘river mouth’, Old-болг. uostije ‘the same’].
pa(i)vis ‘child, son’ [греч. Homer pavis, Att. paus, pais].
paisa(s) ‘soot’ [лит. paiљai ‘soot’].
pala ‘swamp, bog’ [лит. palios, pl. ‘big swamp. bog’, лтш. pal,as, pal,i ‘swampy banks of a lake’, Latin palus ‘lake’].
palma ‘swamp, bog’ [from pala with the suffix -má].
pan(i) ‘swamp, quagmire, peat-bog’ [прус. pannean ‘quagmire’, гот. fani ‘silt’, etc.].
para, phara ‘settlement, village’, marketplace [from the ИЕ. *(s)porá as ‘village’].
paurakis 'small' [Latin paucus 'small'].
pauta(s) ‘foam’ or ‘foaming’ [прус. RN Pauta, лит. puta ‘foam’, putóti ‘to foam’, лтш. putas ‘foam’].
per ‘boy, son’ [Lat. puer ‘child, boy, son’].
per(u)- ‘a rock’ [Hett. peruna- ‘a rock’, скр. párvata- ‘mountain’].
pés ‘boy, child’ [греч. paus, pais ‘child’, Cypr. pas ‘the same’].
pi - 'beside, more'
pinon 'a drink' [ИЕ. *poi-, *pi- 'to drink', Latin pibo 'I drink', слав. *piti 'to drink'].
pitye 'a treasure'
piza(s) ‘bog, meadow’ [лтш. písa ‘deep swamp’, греч. písea, pl. ‘damp places, meadow’].
poltyn 'a fortress'
pras- (resp. *praus-) ‘to wash, to splash, to bedew’ [лит. prausti ‘to wash, to sprinkle’, лтш. prauslat ’to splash, to besprinkle’, скр. prusnó'ti ‘to splash’].
puis, pus, pys ‘child, son’ [-pu(i)s = греч. Att. paus ‘child, son’].
pupa ‘beans’ or ‘hill’ (?) [лит. pupa ‘beans’ or алб. pupë ‘hill’].
pura- ‘maize, spelt’ [греч. pyrós ‘maize’, лит. púrai ‘winter maize’, Church слав. p@iro ‘spelt’].
purda ‘swampy, damp place’ [лтш. purdul,i ‘a snivel’, греч. pardakos ‘damp, wet’].
puris, poris, por, pyris, pyros, pyr ‘son, boy’ [Latin pure ‘child, boy, son’ in Latin PN Marci-por, Nae-por, óli-por, Etr. nei-pur, naei-purs].
pus, pys ‘child, son’ - see puis.
pusinas ‘spruce forest, pine forest’ [лит. puљynas ‘spruce forest’ from puљis ‘pine, spruce’].
putras ‘bawler, squaller, babbler’ [Old-лтш. personal name Putre, лтш. putruôt, putrât ‘to cry, to speak fast’].
raimas ‘motley’ [лит. ráimas ‘motley, particoloured’].
raka(s) ‘eroded place, a gully’ [лит. rakti ‘to burrow’].
ramus ‘quiet, calm’ [лит. ramus ‘quiet’, скр. rámate ‘to stay quiet, to rest’].
raskus ‘quick, agile, live’ [двн. rasc ‘quick’, German rasch ‘the same’, Engl. rash].
rera ‘stones, stony ground’ (from an earlier *lera) [алб. lerë, -a ‘stones, fallen stones’].
rézas (resas) ‘king’ [Latin rex ‘king’, скр. raj- ‘the same’].
ring- (rink-) ‘quick, skillful’ [двн. (ge)-ringi ‘light’, Middle-German ge-ringi ‘light. quick’, греч. rhimpha ‘quickly, skillfully’].
romfea 'an arrow, a staff'
rudas ‘red, reddish’ [лит. RN Rud-upe., adj. rudas ‘(red-) brown, reddish’, лтш. ruds ‘reddish’].
rumba(s) ‘edge; rapids’ [лит. rumbas ‘periphery’, лтш. rumba ‘waterfall, rapids’].
rús-a (-as, -is) ‘a pit’ or rus- ‘slowly flowing’ [прус. PN Russe (a village and a swamp), лит. rúsys (and rúsas) ‘potatoe’s pit; hut’, лтш. rúsa ‘pit; or the Litv. ruse.ti ‘to flow slowly’].
sabazias ‘free’ [Old-болг. svobod' ‘free’].
saldas, saltas (instead of *zaldas) ‘golden’ [Old-болг. zlato (from the Proto-слав. *zalta) ‘gold (noun)’ , New-болг. zlato ‘gold’, zlaten ‘golden’].
sara ‘current, stream’ [скр. sará ‘river, stream’].
sartas ‘light-red’ [лит. sartas ‘light-red (for horses)’, лтш. sarts ‘red’].
satras (satrus) ‘live, quick, agile’ (?) [лит. љatrus ‘live, quick, agile, row’].
saut-is (-as) ‘lazy’ [лтш. sautis ‘lazy man, who sleeps all the time’].
sei(e)tuva ‘deep place in the river’ [лит. sietuve. ‘deep place in the river’].
seina(s) ‘village, settlement’ [Armen. љén, Gen. sini ‘village’, греч. Rhod. kroina ‘residence’].
sékas ‘grass, greenery; hay’ [лит. љe.kas ‘recently mowed down grass’, скр. s'áka- ‘vegetable’].
sem(e)la (= zeml’a) ‘land, earth’ [Old-болг. zemlja, рус. zemlja, лит. zeme, лтш. zeme].
serma, sermas ‘current, stream’ [скр. sárma-h ‘current’, лит. RN Sérmas].
siltas ‘warm, pleasant’ [лит. љiltas ‘warm, pleasant’, лтш. silts ‘warm’, Cymr. clyd ‘warm, warming’].
sind(u)- ‘river’ [скр. sindhu- ‘river’, Old-Pers. hindus ‘the same’].
singas ‘low land, depression’ [гот. sigqan, двн. sinkan, German sinken ‘to sink, to collapse’].
siros 'a granary'
skaivas ‘left’ [греч. skaiós ‘left’, Latin scaevus ‘the same’].
skalme 'a sword'
skalp- ‘to beetle, to hit’ [лит. skalbti (-biu, -biau) ‘to beetle, to dolly (for laundry)’].
skaplis ‘axe’ [лит. skaplis ‘axe’].
skapt- ‘to dig’ [лит. skaptúoti ‘to cut, to carve (in wood)’, греч. skápto ‘to dig’].
skaras (-is) ‘quick’ [Old-болг. skor@, рус. skor@j ‘quick’, etc. (Proto-слав. *skar@)].
skarké 'a coin'
skarsas ‘transverse, slanting’ [the греч. en-kársios, epi-kársis ‘curved, bent, transverse’, лит. skersas ‘transverse, oblique].
skilas ‘quick, impetuous’ [лит. skilti ‘set fire’ and ‘run mad’]
skreta ‘circle, circumference’ [лит. skrete. ‘a (round) disk’, skrite. ‘circumference’].
skumbr-as (or -is) ‘hill, mountain’ [лит. kumbrys, kumbris ‘hillock, hill, mountain peak, small mountain’].
spinda(s) ‘clearing (in the forest)’ [Lith spindis ‘clearing in the forest’].
spinos 'coal'
stra (from an earlier *strava) ‘current, torrent’ [лит. srava ‘current’, лтш. strava ‘current, torrent’].
strambas ‘stubble-field’ [прус. strambo ‘stubble-field’, the лтш. struobs ‘a spray, a stem, a straw’ ].
strumá, strumón ‘current, river’ [двн. stroum, German Strom ‘current’ river’, лит. sraumuo, -ens ‘fast current’, srúti (srúvu, dial. srúnu) ‘to fill with water’ and ‘to flow, to outflow the banks (for a river)’].
strúna ‘current, river’ [лит. sriti ‘to fill with water, to outflow’].
stur(ia) ‘country, countryside’ [Old-Bulg strana (Proto-слав. *starná) ‘country’, болг. pro-stor ‘expanse, space’].
suchis, sukis, suku(s) (-os) ‘girl’, resp. ‘boy, juvenile’ [Cymr. hogen ‘girl’, hogyn ‘boy, lad’, лит. súnus ‘son’, Old-болг. s@in ‘son’, etc.].
suka ‘a crack, a gorge, a pass’, [лит. љuke. ‘a gap, a crack’].
sula ‘groove’ [греч. hýle ‘forest, groove’].
sunka ‘sap, fluid’ [лит. sunka ‘sap (of a tree); fluid’].
sura (zura) ‘current, stream’ [скр. sirá ‘current. stream’].
suras ‘strong, brave; a hero’ [скр. súra-h ‘a hero, a warrior’, авест. súra- ‘brave, courageous; a hero’].
suras ‘salty, bitter’ [лит. súras ‘salty’, лтш. surs ‘salty, bitter, sour’].
svit- ‘to shine, to twinkle’ [лит. љvite.ti ‘to shine, to twinkle’, Old-болг. svüteti sia) ‘to shine’].
mos ‘a run’].
tarpas, terpas ‘a gap, a crack’ [лит. tárpas, térpü ‘an interstice, a crack’, Proto-слав. *tarp@ ‘a pit, a ditch’].
taru- ‘spear’ [греч. dóry ‘tree’ and ‘spear’, Hett. taru- ‘tree, trees’, скр. dáru- ‘tree’].
therm 'a tribe'
thin- ‘to hold, to carry’ [Latin teneó, -ere ‘to hold’].
thurd- ‘to crash, to collapse’ [двн. sturzen, German stürzen ‘to overthrow, to fall’].
tirsas ‘thicket’ [лит. tirљtis ‘density, thickness’ and ‘thicket, brush-wood’, tirљti (tirљtu) ‘to thicken’].
titha ‘light, radiance’ [греч. titó' ‘morning glow; morning, day’, алб. ditë ‘day’].
tón 'a present' [ИЕ. *dó- 'to give'].
tranas ‘rotting’ [лит. RN Tranys, trene.ti ‘to rot, to decompose’].
traus- ‘to break, to crumble’ [лит. trauљti ‘to break, to crumble’, trauљus ‘brittle’, the лтш. trauss, trausls ‘brittle, fragile’, Old-рус. troh@ ‘lazy; sad’].
tri 'three' [ИЕ. *treyes, *trí 'three'].
tund- 1. ‘to push, to knock’; 2. ‘river’ [1. Latin tundó, -ere ‘to push, to knock’, скр. tundaté ‘to push’. 2. Old-Icel. ?und ‘river’].
tuntas ‘a flock, a flight; a heap’ [лит. tuntas ‘a flock, a flight; a heap, a pile’].
turm- ‘a run, a flight’ [скр. drámati ‘to run’, греч. drómos ‘a run’].
udra(s) ‘otter’ [ИЕ. *wed-, *wod-, скр. udráh ‘water animal’, авест. udra- ‘otter’, греч. hydros, двн. ottar, лит. údra, болг. vidra ‘otter’].
udrénas ‘water, aquatic’ [ИЕ. *wed-, *wod- 'water'].
úkas ‘mist; misty, turbid’ [лит. úkas ‘a mist; clouding; fume, vapour’, úkanas ‘cloudy, turbid’].
upa ‘river’ [лит. úpe. ‘river’, лтш. upe ‘river, stream’].
-upula 'apple?' [ИЕ. *amlu-, *samlu- 'apple'].
urda(s) ‘stream’ [лит. urdulys ‘(mountain) stream, pool’, лтш. urdavin,a ‘stream’].
usku- ‘water; aquatic, marshy’ [Old-Ir. u(i)sce ‘water’, Old-Cymr uisc, Irish esc ‘water, bog, swamp’].
utos ‘water, river’ [ИЕ. *wed-, *wod-, скр. ud-án- ‘water’, греч. hydos ‘the same’].
vair-as (-us) ‘spinning’ [лит. vairus, vairas ‘spinning’, Swed. vírr ‘a spiral’].
varpasas ‘whirlpool’ [лтш. várpats ‘whirlpool’, the лит. varpyti (-pau, -piau) ‘to dig, to burrow’].
veger- (resp. *veker-) ‘damp; to bedew’ or ‘haymowing’ [Dutch wak ‘damp’, лтш. vedzere etc.].
veleka(s) ‘place for washing’ [лит. vele.kles ‘a place, used for washing’, vele.ti ‘to wash (with a paddle)’].
ver- ‘to spring, to issue’ [лит. vírti (vérdu, viriau) ‘to boil, to bubble’, the Old-болг. v'reti v'rion ‘to spring, to boil’].
verza(s) ‘a barrier used for fishing; dam’ [лтш. varza ‘dam’].
zalmos 'a skin'
zan 'a clan, a family' [ИЕ. *g'en- 'to give birth, a kin'].
zbel- (from an initial *zibel-) ‘shining; a thunderbolt, a lightning’ [лтш. zibele ‘shining’, zibelêt ‘to flash, to twinkle, to shine’].
zburul- ‘light (noun); shining’ [лит. z'iburys ‘light’ (noun)’].
zeira 'a kind of chiton'.
zelas - 'wine' [греч. khulos 'juice']
zelmis ‘an offspring, descendant’ [лит. z'elmuo, -ens ‘plant’ and ‘an offspring’].
zenis, zenés ‘born, born in’ [=genes in the греч. personal name of Dio=génes, from the ИЕ. *g'en- ‘to give birth’ in the Old-Latin geno ‘to produce, to give birth’].
zéri- (from an earlier *zvéri-) ‘an animal, a beast’ [лит. z've.ris ‘a beast’, Old-болг. zver@ ‘the same’, греч. thér].
zetraia 'a pot' [греч. khutra]
zi- ‘god’ [shortened from ziu-, zia- and similar, ИЕ. *deiwo- 'sky god', греч. Zeus].
zilas ‘grey, turned grey’ or ‘blue’ [лит. z'ilas ‘grey-haired’, лтш. zils, zilљ ‘blue’].
zilma(s) ‘greenery’ [лтш. zelme ‘green grass or wheat’].
zombros 'a bison?' [слав. *zo.brü, лтш. subrs 'a bison', Old Prus. wissambris 'a bison', Old Icel. visundr 'a bison'].
zum-, zuml- ‘dragon’ [Old-Bulg zm'i ‘dragon’, zm'ia ‘snake’].
zvaka(s) ‘bright, white’ [лит. z'vake. ‘light (noun)’].

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